Yarns Used in Towel Production and Their Properties
Towel fabrics should have properties such as high hydrophility, high wet strength, good dyeability, high color fastness, washability, soft handle, and anti-allergenicity. Cotton is the most widely used fiber in terry fabric production, as cotton yarns can provide all of these features in the most efficient way. In addition to cotton, fibers such as modal, bamboo, lyocell, soy, corn, seaweed and flax can be used in towel production, albeit at a low rate. Although bamboo fiber can be used in towels because it is soft, antibacterial and highly absorbent, it has not yet become widespread due to its low production amount. On the other hand, the dry strength of linen is higher than cotton and its strength increases by 25% in the wet state like cotton. In addition, this fiber, which has a very high absorbency, can be used in the production of some special massage and sauna towels, although it has not become very common in towels due to its hard touch and the very long processing process.
The use of synthetic and synthetic blended yarns in towel production is limited, and in frequently washed hotel towels, polyester / cotton mixture can be used rarely in the ground and weft. Thus, it is ensured that the towels are resistant to frequent washing and that the non-shrinkage feature improves after washing. In addition, since they can absorb water up to 5-7 times their weight, in recent years, microfilament polyester yarns have been used in towel production by mixing them with cotton.
The use of modal fiber obtained from 100% beech wood cellulose in towel production has also increased in recent years. The fiber in question has features such as extremely high softness, hydrophility, color brightness after dyeing, high color fastness and easy maintenance compared to cotton. In addition, by mixing it with cotton, the problem of hardening and yellowing of cotton after frequent washing is largely solved.
Yarn Properties Used in Towel Production
Towels; It can be produced with three yarn systems: pile warp, ground warp and weft (for border and / or pile area). However, the border scarf thread is only valid for border towels. Yarns used as ground warp: Since the ground warp yarns are exposed to more tension during weaving, they must be both resistant and flexible. For this reason, folded, high-twisted yarns are generally preferred in ground warping, and as a result of the developments in sizing technology, it has begun to be used in well-sized single-ply yarns. Carded ring yarn is generally preferred as ground warp, but rotor yarns can also be used due to price and cost pressure. Yarns of Ne 20/2 or 24/2 and with a twist of 500-550 t / m are widely preferred as folded twisted yarn on the ground, although not often used, 12/1 or 10/1 yarns can be used as a single layer. In addition, 100% cotton yarns are generally preferred as ground warp, and cotton / polyester mixture can also be used for high strength.
Yarns used as pile warp
The yarns used as pile warp have a very important place in determining the finished towel properties, and it is necessary to select the pile yarn in accordance with the criteria such as the weight of the towel, velvet or curl. As pile warp, 100% cotton, single or double layer yarns can be used, and layered yarns are preferred for vertical pile classic towels, single-layer yarns for spiral pile towels. Below are two types of pile structures. In double layered yarns, giving a certain value of twist may be sufficient for the yarn to work without size.
The twist number used in practice for the yarns to be used as pile warp is around 200-255 t / m, and the low twist number provides better touch and water absorbency of the towel, but a decrease in strength occurs. As the number of twists increases, less problems are encountered during weaving and weaving efficiency becomes higher. In addition, the arrangement of the pile is much smoother, the velvet is easier to do, and there is less velvet waste compared to low-twisted yarn. In addition, there is no or less fluff problem seen in high pile lengths and low-twisted yarns. The pile warp yarn numbers commonly used in the industry can be listed as Ne 16/2, 20/2, 24/2, 30/2, 8/1, 10/1, 12/1, 16/1 and 20/1. The thickening of the yarn used in the pile increases the surface coverage (less visible ground). In addition, depending on the quality of the product to be produced, it can be worked with combed, carded or open-end yarns, and the products produced using open-end yarn are harder to touch and less water absorbent.
Yarns used as wefts
The weft thread is very important in terms of weaving efficiency as well as the quality of the towel, and the appropriate weft thread should be selected depending on the weight and density of the desired towel. 100% cotton, Ne 20/1, 16/1 and 12/1 counts and 240-255 t / m twist yarns are widely preferred in the industry. Border can be created with fancy knitting or weft threads that can vary widely in towels. Different types and numbers of yarns such as rayon, viscose, polyester, chenille and mercerized can be used in the borders.
Fabric Constructions Commonly Used in Towel Production
Towel fabrics can be produced in different constructions depending on the place of use. The most widely used pile forming system is the 3 weft system. In basic Turkish towels, pile and ground warps form the texture by connecting R 2/1 separately on the front and back sides. Warps can be arranged in the direction of the width of the fabric as 1 pile-1 ground or 2 pile-2 ground.
While the weft density value, which is widely used in terry fabric production in the industry, varies between 12-25 wefts / cm, warp density varies between 18-30 warps / cm. However, the density of the weft in the border can be increased 3-6 times compared to the pile area. The amount of pile warp yarn per unit length is expressed as the pile / ground ratio, the value generally ranges from 2-10. This ratio is an extremely important size as it directly affects fabric weight, thickness and various performance properties. In addition, the most commonly used weight values vary between 380-650 gr / m2, and it is technically possible to produce towels with a weight of 300-1200 gr / m2.