The Difference Between Ring Yarn and Open-End Yarn
There are 2 types of yarn spinning techniques commonly used in cotton spinning.
1-) Ring yarn
2-) Open-end yarn
1. Ring Yarn Production
Ring yarn is produced from the long fibers of cotton. Ring yarn is divided into carded and combed cotton. The difference between the two yarns is due to the combing process. The combing process is the intensive combing process of the raw material (cotton) that feeds the machine with the help of the combs in the machine, and thus the short fibers of the cotton are separated. Depending on the cotton used and the machine settings, 5-25% fiber can be extracted from the raw material and evaluated differently.
The difference of combed yarn from carded yarn is that it is produced using longer fibers obtained after the combing process.
In this way, much finer yarn can be produced. This yarn, which is produced in high quality, has an extremely flat structure, softer and has high absorbency; It is used in the production of shirts, underwear, women’s clothes, high quality bedding.
Thanks to the carded and ring yarns, which have been used in the home textile sector with the increase in living standards in recent years, the quality of sleep has been increased along with softness and naturalness. In addition to increasing the quality in industrial uses (Hotel, Restaurant and Hospital textile), it has extended its service life and has provided advantages for businesses by preserving the flat appearance of the first day until the last use.
Carded and combed yarn is of higher quality than open-end yarn.
It has a softer and smoother texture compared to open-end yarn and has higher absorbency, as it can be achieved with less twist number during the production phase. In addition, the deformation rate, which is called pilling or lice, is very low in the fabrics produced with these yarns, which have a very strong strength. However, it should be noted that the cost of these yarns is higher than open-end yarn.
2. Open-End Yarn Production
Open-end spinning system is a completely different production technique compared to ring yarn. Unlike ring yarn, it is produced from cotton’s short fibers. A rotor rotating at a very high speed is fed with the cotton roving prepared using short fibers. Thanks to the centrifugal force, the wick spreads and adheres to the rotor surface. Open-end yarn is produced by continuously pulling a yarn extended into the rotor. This yarn, which is produced by evaluating even the shortest fibers of cotton, is very economical. In order to ensure integrity, the number of twists must be higher than the ring system. This causes it to have a harder structure.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OPEN-END YARN AND RING YARN
1-The production speed in Open-End spinning is higher than in Ring spinning systems. This is a factor that increases production while decreasing the cost.
2-Process steps in Open-End spinning are shorter than in Ring spinning. This is one of the factors reducing the cost.
3-The yarn produced in the Open-End system is more bulky, more elastic, more absorbent and less hairiness than Ring yarn. If the twist is not very high, the attitude is also good. Its good absorbency provides high sizing percentage and brighter shades.
4-The properties of the yarn produced in the Open-End system are less variable than the ring yarn. Thinness, unevenness, durability, etc. it changes less along the thread.
5-According to the process, there must be an average of 70-100 fibers in the cross section of Open-End yarns. That is why Open-End yarns cannot be produced in fine counts as ring yarns (requires an average of 50-70 fibers in cross section).
For example, although Ne40 yarn can be produced theoretically in the Open-End system, in practice, Ne30 yarn is not exceeded.
6-One technological disadvantage of Open-End spinning is the spiral fibers formed on the yarn surface. When the spun yarn is fed into the rotor cavity, some of the fibers are wound onto the surface of the yarn in the direction of the twist. We can use this feature to separate Open-End yarns from Ring yarns. When we try to open the yarn with our two thumbs in the opposite direction of the twist direction, we can notice that the twist of the Ring yarns is opened and the fibers appear, but on the surface of the Open-End yarns, the above-mentioned spiral fibers do not allow the yarn to be twisted and we see that the yarn remains curled.